How Can Republicans Sleep At Night?

How Can Republicans Sleep at Night?

            Robert A. Levine

The Republican Party in seeking power is at the threshold of overturning America’s democracy. After regularly losing the popular vote in most presidential elections in the last two decades, they want to insure that they will win all elections indefinitely by suppressing the votes of the Democratic portion of the electorate. They are aiming to win not only the presidency but control of the House, the Senate and most state legislatures and governorships by changing the rules for voting on a state level.

In states where there are Republican controlled legislatures and Republican governors, they are making it more difficult for minorities to vote because they generally support Democrats. The GOP controlled states are cutting down on voting days and voting hours for in-person voting and eliminating mail-in ballots. They will undoubtedly also increase gerrymandering when the results of the census are confirmed. Sunday voting after church is also being cut since this is the way many Black voters go to the polls. Special IDs are also being demanded in some states which are often hard to get, especially for working people.

On a Federal level, the law HR1 that guarantees voting rights and overrides state laws that suppress voting, is getting no support from Republicans in the Senate, having already passed the House. The Senate cannot pass HR1 unless they have sixty votes or more, or the filibuster is eliminated, neither of which have Republican approval. The GOP is content to allow the states they control to maximally suppress voting by people leaning Democratic, particularly minorities, even though it means that America is no longer a democracy with each person having one vote.

The electorate that favors Republican is both old and white, and at some time in the future will be a permanent minority. The state voting laws being passed by the GOP will be utilized in elections immediately. But it also ensures that old white people will still be able to dominate the country and elect their candidates even when they are a minority. Republican action are a sheer power grab but elicit a poor prognosis for democracy.

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Israel and Gaza

Israel and Gaza

            Robert A. Levine June 1, 2021

A small strip of land between Egypt and Israel known as the Gaza Strip has been a continuous source of conflict between Israel and the Arabs. After Israeli independence in 1948 and the war between Israel and the Arab states, Egypt gained control of Gaza where hundreds of thousands of Palestinian refugees landed when they decamped from Israel. Today, the population of Gaza is about two millions, most of them descendants of the original refugees. In 1967 after the Six Day War, control of Gaza reverted to the Israelis who started Jewish settlements there. In the Oslo Peace Accords during the 1990s, Gaza was given to the Palestinians and the Israelis removed their settlements. However, Palestinian elections in 2006 allowed Hamas to win control of Gaza from the PLO and there have been confrontations between Israel and Hamas ever since. Hamas has been designated a terrorist organization by the United States and the EU.                             

In 2008-09, 2012, 2014, and 2021, major conflicts erupted between Israel and Hamas in Gaza. Progressives in the United States and other nations have put the onus on Israel as the aggressor because they have more and more powerful weapons than Hamas and more Palestinians than Israelis have been killed. However, Hamas is expert at asymmetrical warfare and do not care if their civilians are killed as they can then blame the Israelis for war crimes. They purposefully place their rocket launchers and mortars in civilian neighborhoods in Gaza so that civilians will be killed if Israeli forces try to destroy these weapons. In fact, all of the above noted conflicts have been started by Hamas by kidnapping and killing Israelis, shooting rockets into Israel or other acts of aggression.                                                                              

Unfortunately, right-wingers in Israeli are eager to take the bait and target Hamas and its weapons. The recent conflict also gave Prime Minister Netanyahu the opportunity to stay in office instead of facing corruption charges in court. While Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza are treated poorly by the Israelis, Hamas still refuses to recognize Israel’s right to exist and wants control of all the land from the Jordan River to the sea, which will not happen. In the past, attempts to negotiate a two state solution have failed, mainly because of Palestinian intransigence on a number of issues. Palestinians within Israel constitute about 20 percent of the population, with voting rights and representatives in the Israeli parliament. They are able to have unlimited education, attend universities and attain the positions that they desire. Israeli insistence on having a Jewish majority state is directly related to the Holocaust, where no country came forward to protect the millions of Jews who were murdered by the Germans, or provide the survivors with a home when the war was over.                                                                                       

Prior to the establishment of the state of Israel by the U.N. in 1948, there was no nation of Palestine. The area that the Palestinians claim as their homeland was Egyptian, Jordanian and Syrian territory. Much of that land subsequently became the nation of Israel. In November of 1988, Yasser Arafat, the Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) proclaimed the founding of the State of Palestine encompassing the West Bank and Gaza. Though there were Arabs living in areas where the Israelis are now entrenched, these were actually Egyptians, Jordanians and Syrians, not Palestinians.                                                                                      

After the Holocaust, the entire world believed the Jews to be victims of war crimes by the Germans. Now, because of conflicts with the Palestinians who use civilian areas to place their weapons, the Israelis have gone from being considered an oppressed people to being oppressors of the Palestinians, accused of practicing apartheid by liberals and progressives. How quickly the world has forgotten the atrocities and genocide visited on the Jews and is willing to perceive them in a negative light. However, Israel still remains the David in the fight for survival against the Arab and Iranian Goliath, with the Israelis outnumbered more than twenty to one by Arabs and the Iranian state.

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Where is the GOP Going?

Where is the GOP Going?

                        Robert A. Levine 5-18-21

Since Trump took over the Republican Party in 2015, the question that needs to be asked is where is this political party headed?  What is their raison d’etre or reason for being? In the 2020 election, the Party ran without a platform or specific policy objectives. The only factor that bound members together so it could be called a party was its support of Donald Trump. That would be fine if Trump espoused a specific ideology, but he doesn’t. He is defined by populism and nationalism, but his allegiance appears to be primarily to people of wealth and perhaps how to help them get more. Though he is thought of as a populist and is adored by a large segment of the population, during his term in office he did little to improve the lives of ordinary Americans. He seemed to be mainly concerned by how to make his own life better along with those of his family and friends.

Having lost his bid for re-election, he still claims that he won and that the election was stolen from him, mostly because he does not want to be labeled as a “loser”. To obtain Trump’s support in future elections, the overwhelming majority of Republicans have backed his claim that the election was stolen though they all know this is a boldfaced lie. But few Republicans want to cross him in any way. Though he is out of office and does not have the bully pulpit any longer, he is still the leader of the GOP and all of its members must pay fealty to him or suffer the consequences. Aside from loyalty to Trump, the Republicans still have no specific policy proposals on which to run a campaign. They do oppose virtually every idea that the Democrats have brought up and tried to make into law, but opposition alone is not enough to define a political party. They need specific proposals that they are trying to make law, but thus far have not come up with anything concrete. Recently, it appears that some Republicans in the Senate may be willing to compromise with the Democrats over infrastructure plans. But this still does not a party make. They are also willing to have their members support conspiracy theories like QAnon and people like Marjorie Taylor Greene

The Republicans who oppose Trump for the most part call themselves conservatives, but they also have not come forth with a specific platform they can stand on. They are anti-Trump and anti-Democratic Party, but what are they for. What new laws would they like to see enacted? So Republicans of all stripes, pro-Trump and anti-Trump appear to be lacking goals and ideas that they can trumpet to their base and independents to help them get elected or re-elected. Are there any Republicans who know where their Party is going aside from how it relates to Trump? And outside the Party, do the Democrats or Independents know what Republicanism stands for at this point in time?

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QAnon and Other Conspiracy Theories

QAnon and Other Conspiracy Theories

                        Robert A. Levine 5/3/21

It is truly amazing how many Americans accept QAnon and other conspiracy theories as truth and spread various conspiracies over the internet, through social media and by word of mouth. While conspiracy theories did not begin with Trump’s presidency, he formulated many of them and spread others, before, during and after his term in office. Even before he lost the election in 2020, he complained that the election was rigged and that if he did not win by a huge margin, Americans should realize that the election was fixed.

Then afterwards, he has continued to claim that the presidency was stolen from him by the Democrats even though multiple recounts and the courts have reinforced the fact that he lost fair and square. Conspiracies regarding the voting machines have also been found to be false and re-checks have found that the machines worked perfectly well. Trump’s lies about the stolen presidential race have heightened his adherent’s willingness to accept various other conspiracies theories with or without Trump’s imprimatur.

QAnon is the mother of all conspiracy theories, seemingly gaining more advocates every day though its beliefs strike many people as totally bizarre. Even some people in foreign countries accept some of the ideas that QAnon is spreading. Its concepts began prior to the 2016 election when it claimed that a pizza parlor near Washington was the headquarters for a Democratic pedophile ring run by Hilary Clinton. QAnon said that Democrats were pedophiles and were kidnapping American children to satisfy their pedophile members. There was absolutely no truth to this claim but millions of Americans believe it. Apparently, there is some leader of QAnon called Q who periodically comes out with proclamations advising his acolytes what to believe and what to do. A few years ago, one of his followers shot up the pizza parlor hoping to free the children that supposedly were imprisoned there but found nothing. That’s because there was nothing and QAnon is a total hoax that numerous Americans consider real.

Many Americans believe that climate change is a hoax, that the corona virus pandemic does not exist and that vaccines are an attempt to control your body with implanted chips installed whenever you get a vaccine shot. The pandemic and the chips placed in one’s body are blamed on Bill Gates and George Soros who want to control the world. Conspiracy theories seem to be mainly accepted by Republicans

One wonders how so many Americans could be so naïve and gullible to accept the conspiracy theories often born on the internet and spread without any evidence they are valid. Would anyone like to buy a bridge I have for sale?

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Our Recurring Problem with Guns

Our Recurring Problem with Guns

                        Robert A. Levine 4-21-21

How can America solve its problem with guns? Our nation has more deaths and serious injuries due to guns than any other nation in the world. In fact, we probably have more gun deaths than all the other nations in the world combined. Recently, we have seen mass killings by guns on at least a weekly basis. Yet we can’t seem to get a handle on the gun dilemma and cut down on gun deaths. Perhaps that’s because we have more guns in civilian hands than any other country, greater than our population itself. Estimates are that there are about 400 million guns in America.

The obvious way to cut down on deaths due to guns is to cut down on the number of guns in civilian hands. However, even the thought of that action enrages gun owners who point to the 2nd Amendment of the Constitution as the basis of their right to have guns. While the 2nd Amendment is open to interpretation, we will not address that here. There are other ways to approach this problem that the majority of Americans seem to agree on.

Enhanced background checks are first and foremost and there are no valid reasons why these should be thorough and intrusive. Any criminal history, domestic abuse, suicide attempts and so forth should prevent a person from owning a gun. Civilian gun ownership should be approved for one of two reasons- for hunting, or protection in the home or on a dangerous job. This means that automatic or semi-automatic weapons should be banned. These are weapons of war and there is no reason they should be owned by civilians. Gun buyers should also be at least 21 before being allowed to buy guns.

For ten years, 1994-2004, assault weapons were federally banned, supported by Ronald Reagan and Jimmy Carter among others. Enhanced gun clips should also be banned, forcing people to reload after firing a number of shots. The majority of our population favors all the measures mentioned above. Though some states have passed restrictions on gun ownership, nearby states may have no limitations and buyers travel to these open states to buy guns. Or they get them at gun shows or over the Internet which are not tightly monitored.

Though the measures above are all common sense, the NRA has been opposed to any restrictions and the GOP in Congress and the Senate is afraid of the NRA. They should no longer be as the NRA is a bankrupt organization with little remaining power. Now is the time to get a bipartisan gun law passed in Congress to cut down on civilian gun deaths.

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Entitled

Entitled

            Robert A. Levine  4/12/21

By dint of money, celebrity or power, many individuals in America consider themselves entitled and able to have their way in everything they want. They see ordinary people as pawns to be used to further their own comfort and interests. That everyone is not created equal is apparent to even casual observers. Aside from sexual and racial variance, some people are tall, some short, some fat, some thin, some muscular, some weak, some smart, and some of average intelligence. We are all products of our genes, shaped to a large degree by our environment as children, but also happenings later in life. The genetic makeup and childhood experiences of people differ markedly, producing adults who are diverse in looks, cognitive function, athletic ability, and so forth. However, in a democracy these differences should be of no significance in how individuals are treated by one another or by the state. Everyone should expect consideration and respect from other men and women, no matter how different they may be.

Unfortunately, not only in America but in every society there are individuals who believe themselves privileged and above other people in status, thinking they are entitled to special treatment from the rest of us. As noted, wealth, power and celebrity are the major factors that make some men and women perceive themselves as entitled. Though in a democracy these feelings should be constrained, those who consider themselves special are often unwilling to surrender the attitudes and conduct that mark them as privileged. These may be manifest by minor aberrations from behavioral norms, or by more imperious conduct that reinforces their assumptions they are privileged.

One may ask whether relatively trivial actions by entitled people are connected to, or predictive of, more serious offenses, as privilege is often manifest by minor deviation from social norms. If they park in no parking or handicapped spaces or cut in line to bypass traffic, or fail to pick up their dog’s droppings, do these indicate that they see themselves as above the law? Are those who consider themselves privileged more likely to commit transgressions in business or social interactions that are unethical or illegal, thinking that they will not be caught or punished? Though a controlled study of these actions would be impossible to perform, common sense and observation of different personalities and behavior would make one believe the answer is yes, as they suggest the possibility of sociopathy. However, it is true that some acts revealing indifference to the sensitivities of others do not necessarily signal entitlement, but may merely represent rudeness and bad manners. None-the-less, the hallmarks of entitlement are lack of consideration and caring for others, along with the attitude that one is better than other people. Rules and regulations can be ignored when necessary to enhance an entitled person’s life.

‘Entitlement’ is defined by the Cambridge English Dictionary as- the feeling that you have the right to do or have what you want, without having to work for it or deserve it, just because of who you are. The word privileged is used in a similar manner to entitled. In our society, a person who feels entitled is one who considers him or herself special or superior to others, and whose conduct is indicative of that belief in various ways. Because of that individual’s bearing, attitude, and actions, most people are aware of his or her assumption that he or she is privileged and deserves to receive appropriate attention and treatment from others. The opposite of an entitled person would be one who is humble, unpretentious, deferential, kind and considerate.

Until people accept the idea of equal status, opportunity and equality under the law, we will not have a democracy. That does not mean all people are equal.

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A Coterie of Unhappy Billionaires

A Coterie of Unhappy Billionaires

                        Robert A. Levine

Even billionaires must realize that America’s infrastructure is decrepit and resembles that of a third world country more than that of a modern state. For a nation whose main mode of transportation is the automobile and that moves goods mainly by truck, one would think that the federal and state governments would keep our roads and bridges in tip-top shape. But the opposite is true. Civil engineers in the last few years have given the nation’s infrastructure a failing grade between C- and D.

Roads and bridges were supposed to be maintained by funding derived from gas taxes and tolls. However, it’s been 27 years since the gas tax was last raised. It remains at 18.4 cents for a gallon of gas and 23.4 cents for a gallon of diesel. Yet in the last quarter century, the number of automobiles using our roads and bridges has increased significantly and more and heavier trucks are being used to transport goods but destroy the roads. State gasoline taxes vary from state to state but have not been high enough to keep the roads and bridges in fine condition. Gasoline taxes are basically user fees which would seem to be a fair way to maintain the roads and bridges. But many drivers are working class or middle class people who would be hurt by raising their road taxes.

And there are numerous other elements of infrastructure that need to be upgraded or installed aside from roads and bridges. We probably have the worst railroad system of any developed country in the world. While China, Europe and Japan have high speed, sleek trains that can go at over 200 miles per hour, American passenger trains creep along at speeds below 100 miles per hour. It’s no wonder that more Americans do not travel by train. But it’s not only the train that has to generate speed, the train tracks must be able to handle trains traveling at high speeds. In many areas, new tracks have to be installed to utilize modern trains.

There are also many of our airports and airport terminals that appear as if they were lifted from a third world nation. While some of the terminals are decent, others are in dire need of repair and rebuilding. And our ports need reconstructing, both to handle goods in container ships and people going on cruises or traveling by boat. Broadband access also has to be provided to rural areas and poor sections of major cities. If poor people don’t have access to the Internet for communication and education, they are severely handicapped in their efforts to advance to higher levels.

So how are we going to pay for all of these requirements to improve the nation’s infrastructure to compete with other modern nations? Should we employ user fees on everything and force poor and middle class people to pay for what is needed. Or should we just raise their taxes, Given the overwhelming inequality in America, corporations and the wealthiest among us should bear the cost of these improvements. Remember that federal and state governments are partially responsible for the success of our corporations and the wealth that the affluent have accumulated. The infrastructure that we have, allowing products to get to consumers was built by the government. Education was provided to train skilled workers.

Thus, the burden of paying for infrastructure improvements and new elements should be borne by corporations and the super-wealthy. Billionaires may not be happy but they should be taxed adequately so that no further debt is accumulated to pay for infrastructure. Remember that it was only four years ago that Trump provided1-2 billion dollars in unnecessary tax cuts primarily to American billionaires.

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Voter Suppression- Who Wins

Voter Suppression- Who Wins

            Robert A. Levine

If the Republicans cannot win fairly, they will do anything to suppress groups of voters who tend to support the Democrats. This is short term thinking for down the road, the minority groups whose votes they are trying to eliminate will be in the majority and will vote regularly for the Democrats. At the moment, many minority voters are mixing their votes and some are backing Republicans. This is not the time to alienate minorities and drive them to the Democratic Party which voter suppression will do.

Currently, in state legislatures across the land that are controlled by Republicans, hundreds of laws are being introduced to suppress voting by minority groups that provide support for Democrats more than Republicans. But this support of Democrats was starting to change in the 2020 elections where Latino men and women and Black men gave significant percentages of their votes to Republicans. Suppressing the votes of these groups by making it increasingly difficult for them to vote is not going to endear the GOP in the minds of these voters and in the long run will probably dissuade Democratic voters from switching.

In addition to blatant gerrymandering expected after the census results are released, Republican state legislatures are shortening the time devoted to early voting, eliminating absentee and mail-in voting without a good excuse and proof of a problem, demanding accurate IDs when voting in person and limiting what can be used, cutting down on the boxes where absentee votes can be dropped off, comparing signatures very carefully on IDs versus forms that allowing voting, shortening the hours on voting day, cutting down on the number of places to vote, situating voting stations in white neighborhoods that are difficult for minorities to reach, preventing people from collecting the ballots of older or disabled individuals (ballot harvesting) because it is difficult for these voters to hand in their ballots. Any measures that will cut down on minority voting will be considered by GOP controlled legislatures.

While it is likely these moves may decrease minority voting temporarily, there are groups that have formed that will transport these voters to the places where they can vote. They are also being helped to fill out the necessary forms. Voters have long memories and as minorities attain majority status, they will remember how the Republicans used underhanded methods to lessen the importance of their votes or made it difficult for them to vote at all. In the long run, the GOP will pay for their actions.

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Trumpism Without Trump

Trumpism Without Trump

            Robert A. Levine

There is no question that Democrats would like to see Trump completely sidelined and out of the political limelight. However, there are plenty of Republicans who feel the same way though they are afraid to express their feelings. For one thing, Trump is draining money from the Republican Party and Republican candidates and directing it to himself. And the money he receives from his base is used mainly for Trump’s personal expenses rather than for political purposes. Those who are sending him the money have no clue how it is being utilized.

Many of Trump’s acolytes who would like to see him gone want to try and replace him as the Big Kahuna in the Party, getting the support and money from his adoring base. These are people like Ted Cruz, Ron DeSantis and Josh Hawley who see themselves as potential presidential candidates in 2024 and want to get Trump out of the way. As he long as he presents himself as a possible presidential candidates in 2024, no other Republican can make a move.

Trump is also giving his imprimatur to House and Senate candidates in 2022 to try and control the party completely. He is at odds with Mitch McConnell who is probably the second most powerful Kahuna in the GOP. To say that they cannot stand each other would be an understatement. So Mitch would certainly like to see Trump gone.

Aside from Trump stepping aside voluntarily, he faces criminal charges in Georgia and New York State and it is possible that he could wind up in prison. He has broken campaign finance laws and tax laws and has a number of potential witnesses willing to testify against him.

Trump also has a number of family members who want to enter politics with the Trump name. These include Lara Trump, Eric’s wife, Don Jr. and Ivanka, all willing to carry the Trump name forward.

Whether or not Trump himself runs in 2024 depends on his mood, unless the legal system puts him away. But even not running, he can hold that out as a possibility to keep money flowing in, support from his base and the role he loves as king-maker.

Come to think of it Trumpism without Trump may not be such a good thing, with younger politicians keeping his standard flying. Of course, that standard is Trump over all, a man who knows it all, and will do anything to aid Trump. Trumpism in any form is bad for America.

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Creating a Third Party of the Center

Creating A Third Party of the Center

Robert A. Levine

            “It must be realized that there is nothing more difficult to plan, more uncertain of success, or more dangerous to manage than the establishment of a new order of government; for he who introduces it makes enemies of all those who derived advantage from the old order.”

            Niccolo Machiavelli- The Prince [i]

            The time has come for a seismic shake-up of America’s political system. The nation’s current political parties are corrupt and self-serving, tethered to lobbyists, special interests and their own partisan bases, and unable to govern productively. To bring about change, a permanent third party of the center is necessary to recalibrate the political equation and start the country on the road to reform. This party must not be dependent on PAC financing but derive direct funding from its supporters. The Republican Party is already splitting three ways, with supporters of Trump, true conservatives and moderates. Trumpists have even considered forming their own third party. The Democrats are split between leftists and moderates.                       

The idea of a permanent third party for America is not new, the reasons that argue for its creation having existed for many decades. Indeed, there have been a number of unsuccessful attempts at gestation, resulting in stillbirths or early demises in infancy. Currently, disillusionment with the government and dismay about the ability of the established political parties to fix matters remain at a high level. Unless the nation is able to accomplish a meaningful revision in the way it is governed, the United States is destined to decline. To effect the required metamorphosis, a permanent third party is needed that values moderation, pragmatism and compromise.

Though revolutionary changes in political systems and mass social movements are usually initiated by the left or the right, this revolution should arise from the center, a protest against America’s two entrenched parties. John Avlon in his book Independent Nation remarked- “Centrism frees voters from the false dichotomies that dominate American politics by offering them a third choice between the rigid extremes of the left and right, a commonsense path that acknowledges the inevitability of change while never straying far from fundamental American values or founding principles… Centrism is the most effective means for achieving the classic mission of politics: the peaceful reconciliation of competing interests. Extremists and ideological purists on either side of the political aisle condemn compromise. But inflexibility either creates deadlock or dooms a cause to irrelevance.” 

A Pew Poll in May of 2019 had 38 percent of Americans identifying as politically independent. An NBC News poll in 2013 had 51 percent of Americans considering themselves as moderates, independents or centrists. Most surveys have the percentage of independents between these two numbers. But voters are accustomed to voting for either Democrats or Republicans and starting a new centrist party that is competitive will not be easy. With the current parties holding a duopoly of power, state and federal laws place barriers in the path of any upstart that might challenge their control. And aside from the legal obstacles, there are also emotional impediments that must be overcome in America’s citizenry to allow a new third party to gain traction. But a new permanent third party of the center can be viable, with the opportunity to realize its goals and win both local and national elections. There are new tools and transformative technologies available for an interloper to level the playing field with the two established behemoths, even though their deep pockets are constantly being refilled by the lobbyists and special interests.

The main asset this new entity will have in its favor is the dissatisfaction of Americans with the political climate. There is a vast body of citizens in America who do not participate in the political process or vote in elections because they feel their votes are inconsequential. Some of these men and women can form the base of a new party, along with independents and centrist Republicans and Democrats who hold their noses when they go to the polls, casting ballots because they feel it is their obligation as citizens. These people might flock to the banner of a political organization that pledged to run incorruptible candidates and would try to end the ideological bickering that has precluded action on so much necessary legislation. To be successful in this insurrection, the new party must persuade Americans that it is a real alternative to Republicans and Democrats, will have staying power and will not fold after one election cycle. It must be able to convince average citizens that it is worthwhile for them to cast their ballots for an untested political upstart that has a vision for a new way of governing. And if it is able to gain credibility among the electorate, it will make centrist politicians who are on the fence more willing to commit themselves to this intriguing new player.

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New People, New Parties, New Infrastructure

New People, New Parties, New Infrastructure

                        Robert A. Levine

America is in crisis and undergoing a steep de­cline. Covid has taken the lives of half a million people and battered the economy. Budget deficits and national debt are climbing. The nation’s infrastructure is old and crumbling while much of Europe and Asia enjoy modern highways and bridges, bullet trains connecting their main cities, gleaming new airports, and broadband connections to all sectors of their population. If America is to compete in this world and maintain its position at the top, its citizens will have to acknowl­edge the need for sacrifice and pain, will have to accept higher taxes on the wealthy and more spending on infrastructure. Americans will have to study harder and work longer, knowing that their struggles will allow democracy to flourish and that their chil­dren and grandchildren will reap the rewards. 

In past times, Americans were willing to sacrifice for the good of the nation and the generations that would follow. Sacrifice is again needed. But we need something more. The two-party system has not been working as the parties collude to maintain their hold on power, reinforcing the need for a permanent third party. This could come from the right but is needed from the center with the extreme left and extremists on the right kept at bay. The moderate Democrats and centrist Republicans should join together to give citizens a better option when they cast their ballots.

In America’s formative years, professional politicians were not involved in the creation of its defining documents, the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution, nor responsible for governing. These duties were managed admirably by public-spirited citizens: farmers, lawyers, and businessmen, physicians), who wanted to participate in the noble experiment of democracy. Perhaps what America needs now are fewer career politicians and more ordinary citizens like our Founding Fathers to become en­gaged in the processes of government and democracy. When lobbyists and special interests subvert this rela­tionship and the people’s desires are ignored, the system is failing. New parties and new participants are needed.

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